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The sounds that we hear constantly (the noise of the wind, the sound of falling water, chirping of birds), for the believer – is the expression of divine perfection, to the unbeliever it is only natural noises.
But music is an art and a slender consonant combinations of sounds, is beauty, is manifested in these combinations, their harmony, harmony, melody.
Music helps the spiritual development of man, his perception of the outside world and the enrichment of imagination.
Nowadays music is not only a source of fun and entertainment but also work, scope of business interests.
Everyone interprets different rhythms, different responding. Science deals with the study of these features for the perception of sounds.
One of the areas of biology – biomusicology reveals how sounds affect a living organism. Many studies devoted to the problems of effects of music on the brain of child during pregnancy mother after birth, during training and under different mental States.
It is known that music has a universal and comprehensive language. And every culture has its own music. It helps people to live and contributes to the continuation of the species. Professor, Institute biomusicology in Sweden Bjorn Merkur so defined the role of music:
“Music is the most important component of the livelihood of the society. Is the voice of life. Many living organisms define belonging to their class and declare their existence with the help of sounds. Please note that the singing of birds, animals and other natural sounds resonate in the human soul.”
Musical education of the fetus during pregnancy Mother
Long been known that the child feels the music and responds to it. This is due to the auditory cranial nerves and the brain’s ability to perceive and remember sounds. The question arises, at what age does this ability? Scientific studies have proven that in the last three months before birth this biological system already exists.
Previously it was believed that before a child begins to speak, his brain is underdeveloped. Actively working sensory perception. The brain acts as a “detective” who tries to find the causes of the sounds perceived by hearing. It acts as a recording tool records and analyzes sounds.
Today we know that children have the ability to feel the music, rhythm, sound volume, the high and low notes. At which week of pregnancy the fetus begins to distinguish sounds? If he hears sounds from the outside? How it responds to music and other sounds? What is the impact of listening to music during pregnancy, the future mother of a newborn to its further development?
Specific research on these problems has led to the conclusion that the auditory system begin to act in the brain of the fetus twenty-sixth week of pregnancy. He sees, first of all, the sound of the mother’s body, external sounds in the womb are not heard, the child is protected from their parent body. Despite this, Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, for example, penetrates through the barrier – the child responds to her body movements, increased heart rate. Many of the sounds, on the contrary, slow down the heart beat is melodic, smooth music. Loud, rhythmic sounds make the heart beat faster and faster. Thus, the sounds on the one hand, contribute to the locomotor activity of the fetus and allow him to birth to obtain some information about the surrounding world.
The first phase is the formation of ability to concentrate, memorize and learn heard. Please note: the usual sounds that can be heard constantly, stop to notice. But as soon as you say a new rhythm, the child responds to his movements, as if telling us that he feels the difference. At the end of pregnancy, the child gets used to certain sounds of the mother’s body – her heart, stomach, and if they change, responds to these changes. He does not respond to a soft sound, but loud begins to move the whole body. If the soft and loud sounds alternate, and this is repeated several times, the child ceases to respond to them.
This proves that even before birth the child can obtain information about the world, remember it and remember after birth. To understand how it is heard before the birth of the music affect the life of the child after his birth, we need to figure out how developed is the ability of remembering.
Many studies have shown that music heard before birth, accelerates the development of the child, helps to cope with some problems of development. Children of mothers who at the twenty-eighth to thirty – sixth weeks of pregnancy listened to music faster than others begin to respond to sounds, learn the melodies. They have a better memory.
Music education and intellectual Abilities
It is proven that music, along with other factors, determines in the first years of a child’s life development, the formation of the brain, logical relationships, education and life expectancy of the first cells (neurons). The more information you get the brain of a child at an early age, the greater the margin of safety it will have, will keep longer performance.
Physicist Gordon Sid and psychologist Frank Size investigated the role of musical education (listening to music and playing a musical instrument) in the intellectual development. With the help of computer technology, they found that music affects brain development and motor skills of the person. Developing a musical ear and contributes to the development of analytical thinking.
In the experiment, we observed children from different cities. They were divided into three groups. In the first, children were taught to read and write music and play the piano, the second computer, the third, control, no training was carried out. After six months spent testing your thinking ability. In the tests, particular attention was paid to the questions of geometry and physics.
Children who studied music, results 34% higher than in the control group. Hence, we can conclude that music contributes to the development of analytical thinking. Than before to allow the child to play music, the better the result.
The positive influence of music is marked not only in children but also in adults. The thinking processes in the classroom, science and music are identical. Listening to music and playing the piano, children develop their learning abilities, studies in mathematics and physics. Teaching music in secondary schools also has a positive effect on human development.
The authors drew attention to the fact that children who spend a lot of time with parents and music, mental skills develop better. This suggests that human intelligence is not just genetic factors and can be improved in the course of life practices.
Experts confirm that children who spend too much time with their parents, smarter and more capable than others. Parents play a big role in the upbringing and education of children. Children who do not receive the attention and care of parents, are lagging behind in development. These parents usually also not received proper attention and education, i.e. history repeats itself.
The main conclusions about the impact of music on the development of biological systems
The above-considered mechanism of the relationship between music and intellectual development can be applied to the hormonal development of the organism. Music can raise or lower the levels of hormones in the blood, to help cope with stress.
For example, gastroenterologicheskoe examination causes anxiety and uncertainty in patients. The stress was confirmed by clinical tests. When these people were given relaxing music, the content of cortisol in the blood decreased, fear diminished.
A similar experiment was performed before surgery. In both groups patients reported that the next day they will operate. After that, in the experimental group within the hour people were listening to music, and in instrument no. In both groups within 15 minutes after sending the operation, the level of cortisol in the blood has risen by 50%. After an hour in the control group, the indices remained high and continued to rise, and the people, listening to music, the indicators of the level of cortisol decreased to normal. That is, can be considered proven that music helps to overcome stress, can be used in the treatment of patients.
Healthy people are also allowed to listen to different music, and then conducted hormonal analyses. They were invited to the music of three types:
- Easy rhythmic music;
- Loud, rhythmic music;
- Quiet music. It is the listening of the last decreases the levels of cortisol and adrenaline in the blood.
Positive and negative effects of music on people depends not only on the nature of music, but also on the characteristics of the human body. Obviously, brain activity, hormonal status and musical impact are interrelated.
Changes in the brain associated with chronic depression are recorded in the right hemisphere, the frontal lobe of the brain. Music helps to change the mental state, reduce stress. Listening to music for twenty minutes a day reduced the level of stress hormone – cortisol – in the blood of people suffering from chronic depression. Music education contributes, on the one hand, intellectual development, ability to reflect, and on the other develops memory. It’s proven by science.
Quiet, rhythmic music can soothe a newborn, but for a long period of listening creates in the brain a persistent focus of excitation, which aktiviziruyutsya the next audition is memorization. Children involved in music, better and faster remember study material than those who perform tasks in silence. Probably because a Hafiz by memorizing the verses of the Koran, repeat them in a chorus, under the divine music. To fully understand the impact music has on the brain, it is necessary to conduct more than one conference.